There is an innumerable choice and I recommend that you check your travel guidebook. I (J.S.) restrict myself to giving some options close to the university which I like personally.
Colazione + Merenda: “Pasticceria Primavera” in Via Sant’Ottavio (Sicilian place, also very good lunch), “Pasticceria Ricco” in Piazza Vittorio Veneto.
Pranzo: “Tre da Tre” in Via Verdi, “Caffetteria San Giorgio” in Corso San Maurizio, “La Piola di Alfredo” in Via Sant’Ottavio “Opposto” and “Abrì” at the angle Via Po/Piazza Vittorio Veneto. Most of these places are substantially more expensive at dinner.
Note: if you do this in the lunch break of the conference, don’t do it in large groups and be sure to tell the waiter that you need to get back soon. Abrì is especially notorious—unfortunately the food is imho (J.S.) the best of all lunch places in the vicinity of the university.
Cibo Veloce: The queue at “Accademia del Panino” in Via Sant’Ottavio is well worth it: you get excellent sandwiches for 3,50-5 €. Also “Monegato” in Via Verdi is decent if you are in a hurry and it has nice staff.
Caffè (in a nice setting): “Circolo dei Lettori” in Via Bogino. You enter a palazzo and you walk up the stairs to the first floor. Closed on Sundays. Also Caffè Elena or Caffè Fiorio (see below). For the rest, the coffee in Turin is one of the best in Italy; you can just enter a random place and you won’t be disappointed. Price range: 1 € (sometimes 1,10 €) “al banco”, 1,50-2 € at the table. Next to the conference venue, “Genesi” (Via Verdi, in front of Palazzo Nuovo) and “Auditorium” (Via Rossini) are convenient options.
Gelato: “Alberto Marchetti” in Via Po, “L’Essenza del Gelato” in Via Principe Amadeo, next to the Hotel des Artistes. My colleagues also like “Gasprìn” in Corso San Maurizio, but I (J.S.) find it a bit overpriced and not as good as the two preceding ones. Same for the ice cream at “Caffè Fiorio”, which I recommend, however, in other respects (see below).
Aperitivi e Dopocena: “Caffè Fiorio” in Via Po (only inside) and “Caffè Elena” (inside/outside) in Piazza Vittorio Veneto. Both very traditional Turinese places with very good wines. Fiorio does apericena, Elena not, but you get, as in most places, some bites with the drink. Next to Elena is “Caffetteria Antonelli”, popular with youngsters and a nice view on the piazza. The same holds for the “Gran Bar” at the opposite site of the river. Classy place, hugely popular with the jeunesse dorée de Turin. A very affordable option is “Caffè des Arts” in Via Principe Amadeo. Slightly trashy ambiente, but an excellent wine selection and decent food. (If you are really on a shoestring, just leave the center and a couple of euros will get you very far, especially if you order vino sfuso.) For the digestivo, I recommend “Gelateria delle Alpi” in Via Po: it is a fun place and gets very lively after 23h.
Cena e Vino: You get good Piemontese cuisine in “L’Angolo di Parìn” (San Salvario neighborhood, excellent price-quality relationship), “Taberna Libreria” (city center–à la carte a bit expensive, but a wonderful fixed menu), “Le Vitel Etonné” (center, only à la carte and a bit upmarket) and “L’Angolo Divino” (Borgo Po, also here the price-quality relationship is excellent, and the house wine is very good, too). There are many other good places, of course; just ask your Lonely Planet. Almost everywhere you get very good wine bottles in the 15-20 € range. Grapes/wines to try are the Roero (fruity), Barbera d’Alba, Barbera d’Asti (full-bodied), Dolcetto (a bit in-between) and Nebbiolo (tannic). The deluxe version of Nebbiolo grapes are the famous Barolo and Barbaresco wines.